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Confidential Computing

When you send data to somebody else's computer they can ordinarily do whatever they like with it. Confidential Computing describes a set of hardware techniques that fix this problem. Confidential Computing makes it possible to know what algorithm will process your information before you send it to a third party, and to be assured that the third party cannot subvert the integrity of the algorithm or observe it while it works.

Conclave makes it easy to write applications that utilise these capabilities. Conclave makes it possible to isolate a small piece of code from the rest of the computer on which it runs (an enclave). Remote users can be shown what code is running in the isolated world and then upload their secret data to it, where it can be processed without the owner of the computer in question getting access. Enclaves can be used to protect private data from the cloud, do multi-party computations on shared datasets and make networks more secure.

Intel SGX is an implementation of enclave-oriented computing. Conclave builds on SGX by making it easier to develop enclaves in high level languages like Java, Kotlin or JavaScript.

In this document we'll introduce the key concepts of Confidential Computing and map them to the equivalent concepts in Conclave. The architecture document then pulls these concepts together to describe the end-to-end architecture of Conclave itself.

What is an enclave?

An enclave is a region of memory which the CPU blocks access to, running inside an ordinary process which we call the host. The region contains both code and data, neither of which can be read or tampered with by anything else. Code executing inside this region has access to special CPU instructions that give it a variety of useful abilities. Enclave memory is protected both from the rest of the code in that process, privileged software like the kernel or BIOS, and because the RAM itself is encrypted even physical attackers. This means a remote computer can trust that an enclave will operate correctly even if the owner of the computer is malicious.

In Conclave, an enclave is a subclass of the Enclave class, which is automatically combined by Conclave with an embedded JVM and compiled into a native shared library (ending in .so), and bundled into a JAR. The host program then uses the EnclaveHost class to load the enclave class from this JAR and automatically instantiate the enclave.


Conclave compiles the enclave into a .so file because that's how the Intel SGX SDK expects the enclave to be built. Conclave hides this detail during the build phase by wrapping this file inside a Jar artifact, and during execution phase automatically loads the .so file from the classpath.

Enclaves and Hosts

As described above, an enclave is loaded into an ordinary operating system process, which is known as the 'host'. All of the enclave's communicates with the outside world is via the host. To facilitate this, once an enclave is loaded, the host and enclave can exchange byte buffers back and forth. This is an efficient operation: the buffers are copied from the host into the enclave using a direct memory copy. Conclave provides convenient APIs to facilitate this data passing between enclave and host.

However, it is important to note that, unlike the enclave, neither this 'host' process, nor the underlying operating system are trusted by the users of the enclave. Yet the enclave depends on them. The following sections explain how message encryption, remote attestation, and the Conclave-specific 'Mail' API combine to solve this problem.


In many ways, enclaves turn pre-existing security assumptions on their heads. In traditional programming, it is generally assumed that the operating system is trusted and that the primary threat is applications attacking the operating system, or each other. However, when using enclaves, this presumption is reversed: the user of the application, who is remote, does not trust the operator or operating system of the computer. Instead, they only trust the code running inside the enclave. Therefore, it is useful to imagine the operating system and the process that hosts the enclave as potential adversaries. Unfortunately, most existing software is built on the assumption that the operating system is not a threat. For this reason, it is usually best to avoid relying inside the enclave on code that was not explicitly written with this deployment mode in mind.

Encrypted messages

Enclaves are only useful if some other computer is interacting with them over the network. An enclave by itself doesn't gain you anything, because enclaves are defending against the owner of a computer. If you just run an enclave locally then the owner of the computer is you, and it doesn't make sense for software to try and protect your own data from yourself.

So these remote users need to be able to encrypt messages with a key that is known only to the enclave.

Enclaves can generate random numbers and thus encryption keys available only to themselves, which nothing else on the host machine can access. Using these keys remote computers can encrypt messages to the enclave. These messages can be passed into the enclave via the host where they are decrypted and worked on. The owner of the host computer can't read them, despite that the data is being processed on their hardware.

Conclave calls these encrypted messages mails, by way of analogy to encrypted e-mail, but enclaves can work with encryption in whatever way they want. The Mail API is just a utility and you don't have to use it.

Remote attestation

Encrypting a message requires a public key, which raises the question of where that key comes from. The clients of the enclave have to be convinced that the key really belongs to an enclave they want to work with and not, say, an unencrypted non-enclave program that's impersonating the intended destination.

Enclave host programs can generate a small data structure called a remote attestation (RA). This structure, which is signed by a key controlled by the underlying hardware, states the following facts:

  1. A genuine, un-revoked Intel CPU is running ...
  2. ... an enclave into which a code module with a specific hash (measurement) was loaded ...
  3. ... and which has generated public key P ...
  4. ... and the computer is up to date with security patches, and configured in the recommended way.

The host generates a remote attestation and sends it to clients in some way. Those clients can then send encrypted messages to the enclave using the public key P after checking what kind of enclave it really is. By recognising a list of known code hashes, or verifying that the enclave was signed by a party whom they trust, clients can effectively whitelist particular enclaves and treat them as trustworthy servers.

In Conclave, a remote attestation is an instance of the EnclaveInstanceInfo class.

Applications of Enclaves

Enclaves are a very general capability and can be used in a variety of ways. You can:

  • Process private data without being able to see it yourself, to enhance your user's privacy.
  • Create a hardware-backed form of zero knowledge proofs: make trustworthy 'statements' that a particular computation was done on some data, without the data itself needing to be revealed.
  • Outsource some kinds of computations to an untrusted cloud.
  • Improve the security of a server by restricting access to a whitelist of client enclaves, blocking attempts to send malformed packets and messages that might come from hackers.
  • Make your service auditable only by users who want high assurance - those who don't care can simply ignore the infrastructure entirely.

Limitations of Enclaves

It's important to understand the limitations of enclaves. They aren't meant to be a general protection for arbitrary programs. Although technically possible to just relay operating system calls in and out of an enclave, this approach suffers from various security pitfalls and more importantly is a mis-understanding of the benefits enclaves give you.

Confidential computing is based on two key insights:

  1. The more code that processes attacker-supplied data the more likely the program is to be hackable.
  2. A large chunk of most programs is actually just moving data around and managing it in various ways, not processing it.

The software and hardware that must be uncompromised for a system to work correctly is called the trusted computing base, or TCB. In Conclave the TCB includes the CPU itself, the patchable microcode of the CPU, and all software running inside the enclave - both your code and the Conclave runtime.

A major goal in secure systems design is to minimise the size of the TCB. This is for two reasons which will be discussed in the following section on security.


The software industry has decades of experience with building secure and tamper-proof systems. A simple heuristic is that the more code there is inside the TCB that handles attacker-controlled data, the easier it will be for an adversary to find a mistake and break in.

It's always been good design to minimise the amount of code that handles potentially malicious data, and enclaves give you an even greater incentive to do so. That's because enclaves don't magically make the software inside them un-hackable. They protect the code and its memory from outside interference by the owner of the computer (and any hackers that gained access to the operating system). However, if the code running inside the enclave has a bug that can be used to get in, those protections are of no use. Thus, it's important for an enclave to be written securely.

Conclave helps with this dramatically because it lets you write enclave logic in memory-safe, type-safe languages like Java or Kotlin. These languages eliminate by construction huge swathes of bugs. All buffer bounds get checked, no memory gets freed before use and all casts are valid. This makes it much easier to process data from outside the enclave because you don't have to worry that you might accidentally let an attacker in.

Sometimes people find this confusing: a JVM is quite large, so if the TCB needs to be small isn't that a problem? The answer is no for two reasons:

  1. This heuristic only applies for code that an attacker can reach and influence via external input, but the input data to the JVM (bytecode) is itself a fixed part of the enclave. Attackers can't modify it without changing the measurement reported in the remote attestation and thus alerting the client - the client's enclave constraint will be violated, and an exception will be thrown.
  2. Conclave uses the GraalVM Native Image JVM, in which all bytecode is compiled to native code ahead of time. The actual JVM in use is therefore quite tiny; it consists mostly of the garbage collector.


Whilst garbage collected/type safe programs are much safer than programs written in C, they aren't immune to vulnerabilities. Watch out for very generic reflective code like object serialization frameworks, that could be tricked into deserializing malicious streams.


Enclaves are meaningless unless the user verifies the enclave does what they think it does before sending it private data. As the enclave size goes up it gets harder to read and understand its code.

In practice audit work will often be outsourced: we don't expect that every end user of an enclave reads all the code themselves. Ultimately though, someone the user trusts must read all the code inside the enclave. The less there is to read the better.

A lot of code works with data without parsing or understanding it. For instance, network frameworks read packets from the wire and databases store data to disk in generic ways. Other parts of a program truly understand the data and work with it in app-specific ways; usually this is called business logic.

In enclave-oriented design you draw a bright line between host code and business logic. Business logic runs inside an enclave on normal Java objects. Host code does everything else:

  • Network handling
  • Storage
  • Routing
  • Monitoring
  • Providing administration interfaces

and so on. Keeping as much code in the host as possible has two key advantages:

  1. The host code is untrusted and assumed to be compromised. Thus any bugs in it are much less serious. You can worry less about security vulnerabilities in the host code because it can't access your user's private data.
  2. Because the enclave is small it will change less frequently, meaning clients don't need to re-audit or whitelist new versions.

The second point is intuitive to understand. Think of your enclave as a concrete version of your privacy policy. If you change your web server, core database engine or even entire operating system then this is of no concern to your users. You've only changed how data is processed. However, if you change what you do with their data, they may have an opinion on this and want to know about it. Remote attestation lets them see that the core business logic has changed, and in what way.


In summary, an enclave is a small program which can run on an untrusted computer, where the operator of that computer cannot affect the integrity of the code nor observe the data that passes in or out. Through a process of 'remote attestation', remote clients can gain confidence that a specific program - or a program signed by a particular entity - is running, and that it is running in this secure mode on a fully patched machine. This makes it possible to deliver services that operate on third parties' data, where those third parties can be assured that their data cannot be used for any other purpose.

Enclaves run inside untrusted host processes, and the combination of encryption, remote attestation and Conclave's purpose-designed APIs work together to make it as simple as possible for developers to write applications that work in this way.

Additional Comments

A note on measurements vs signers

A measurement is the code hash included in a remote attestation. It's not the hash of any particular file but rather a more complex hash that must be calculated with special tools. It covers the entire module and all of its dependencies loaded into an enclave (a fat JAR).

A measurement hash is pretty unhelpful by itself. It's just a large number. To be meaningful you must reproduce the measurement from the source code of the enclave. When you compile your enclave the measurement hash is calculated and printed. By comparing it to what you find inside a remote attestation, you can know the source code of the remote enclave matches what you have locally.

Whitelisting measurements is strong but brittle. Any upgrade to the enclave will cause your app to reject the new remote attestation and stop working until you re-read the enclave's source code, reproduce the build again and whitelist the new measurement. An alternative is to whitelist a signing key instead.

Enclave files must be signed, and the SGX infrastructure understands and verifies these signatures. This is useful for two reasons:

  1. You can choose to accept any enclave signed by a particular organisation, rather than reviewing the source code and reproducing the enclave yourself.
  2. Some SGX capable computers have a root key that must whitelist enclaves to be executed. This can be used by the owners of SGX-capable machines to retain visibility and control into what programs are actually running on their hardware. Whilst this capability could therefore be leveraged by cloud vendors to restrict which SGX workloads their servers will allow running, we are not aware of any that operate in this way in practice.

Included in remote attestations is the hash of the public part of the key that signed an enclave, so you can choose to communicate with any enclave signed by a given key.

Enclaves vs alternative approaches

The enclave architecture is the result of many years of evolution. Enclaves are good at minimising TCB size because that was their entire design goal: an enclave is intended to be the smallest piece of application logic that needs to be protected.

Some other systems work by attempting to protect and attest an entire operating system stack, but this was tried in the past and found to work poorly. Let us now briefly trace the historical evolution that led to the SGX enclave design today.

The first attempts at implementing trusted computing relied on a so-called trusted platform module chip (TPM). The TPM contained special registers called platform configuration registers (PCR). A PCR was sized to contain a hash, but could not be written directly. Instead, writing to a PCR concatenated the new hash value with the prior, and stored the result of hashing that concatenation. PCRs therefore contained the final hash in a chain of hashes. The only way to get a PCR to a particular value is to feed it the right sequence of hashes, called the chain of trust.

The firmware and electronics on the motherboard implemented a static root of trust. In this design, the initial boot ROM would load the BIOS and other firmware, hash it into a PCR and then pass control to it. The firmware would then in turn hash and load the next stage into the same PCR and so on. Thus, by the time the system booted, all the software and firmware on the system had been hashed together. The contents of the PCR could then be remotely attested, and the user could verify what software booted. This then let them reason about how the remote computer would behave.

Given the explanations above the problem with this approach is hopefully now obvious - this approach defined the TCB as everything in the entire boot sequence, including the whole operating system kernel. Any bug at any point in this code would allow someone to create a forged chain of trust and undermine the system. But system firmware is already very large and likely to contain bugs, let alone a kernel. Even if the entire boot was secure the operating system or application server would likely contain bugs allowing in remote attackers anyway.

On the open PC platform this system turned out to be too easy to defeat, and became abandoned outside a few use cases involving disk encryption (with no remote attestation). Despite its failure in PCs, static roots of trust worked well enough for games consoles where the entire boot sequence could be encrypted, locked down, attested to multi-player game networks and very carefully audited by a vertically integrated systems manufacturer.

The next attempt introduced a dynamic chain of trust via Intel TXT and AMD SVM. TXT/SVM provided so-called "late launch" in which a hypervisor can be started up and measured whilst the system is running. The hypervisor can then measure and boot an operating system, which may be a small and special purpose operating system. This approach also failed to gain much traction, as at the time building a small special purpose OS was too difficult (whereas nowadays open source unikernel operating systems are more easily available), and booting a regular Linux faced many of the same problems as with the static root of trust: too many places to hide back doors, too many bugs for the system to be truly trustworthy.

This is how we arrived at SGX. An enclave runs in user-space and does not require a large piece of code like a hypervisor, kernel and system firmware to become a part of the remote attestation. Instead, only a small statically linked binary is loaded and protected. The code in the enclave can communicate with the host process by reading and writing from host memory. The TCB size is finally minimised to only what is strictly necessary - as long as your app is designed correctly.