Skip to content

Non-cloud deployment

Conclave recommends users to deploy applications in Azure VMs as it's the easiest method.

However, you can also deploy your enclaves on-premise.

If your hardware supports EPID attestation instead of DCAP, you need to get access to the Intel Attestation Service (IAS).

To configure the host:

  1. Install the SGX kernel driver (not required for Linux kernel versions later than 5.11).
  2. Install the Intel platform services software.
  3. Follow the instructions at the IAS website to get access to the IAS servers using a whitelisted SSL key.


  1. You can develop enclaves on Linux, Windows, or macOS hosts. To use simulation mode in Windows and macOS, you need to install and run Docker. Intel requires that the CPU must at least support SSE4.1.
  2. Conclave works only in mock mode on new Mac computers with Apple silicon due to a known issue.

Hardware support

The machine needs support from both the CPU and the firmware. Please check with your hardware manufacturer to confirm that your system supports SGX.

You need to enable SGX in the BIOS/UEFI firmware screens for some machines. For others, a root user needs to activate SGX. The Enclave host API will try to activate SGX if run with sufficient permissions.

Distribution support

Intel supports the following Linux distros:

  • Ubuntu 18.04 LTS Desktop 64bits
  • Ubuntu 18.04 LTS Server 64bits
  • Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Desktop 64bits
  • Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Server 64bits
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 7.6 64bits
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 8.2 64bits
  • CentOS 8.2 64bits
  • Fedora 31 Server 64bits

Install the kernel driver and system software

You can get the installers for the system software from Intel here.

Follow this user guide to install the driver and the system software.

Intel provides:

  • APT repositories for Ubuntu
  • Cross-distro installer binaries for other platforms, which set up the system software and install the kernel driver.


You need to re-run the installer after upgrading the kernel.

Alternatively, you can compile the system software yourself. The kernel driver is also available on GitHub.

A daemon aesmd helps to implement SGX remote attestation and machine provisioning. This daemon comes as part of the SGX platform services software and is set up during installation.

A quick summary:

  1. Download and run the driver installer binary (all distros).
  2. For Ubuntu users:
    • For Ubuntu 18 LTS: echo 'deb [arch=amd64] bionic main' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/intelsgx.list
    • For Ubuntu 20 LTS: echo 'deb [arch=amd64] focal main' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/intelsgx.list
    • Add the Intel package signing key: wget -qO - | apt-key add -
    • Run apt-get update
    • Run apt-get install libssl-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev libprotobuf-dev libsgx-urts libsgx-launch libsgx-epid libsgx-quote-ex
  3. For non-Ubuntu users, use the SDK installer (which also installs the platform services software).

These steps will start the aesm_service.

Limited network connectivity

The enclave host machine needs to contact Intel's attestation servers to prove to third parties that it's a genuine, unrevoked CPU running with the latest secure configuration. So, if the machine has limited connectivity, you must use an outbound HTTP[S] proxy server.

You need to set up your proxy settings in the /etc/aesmd.conf file inside the aesmd service.

The program that uses Conclave will also need to make web requests to So you need to provide Java with HTTP proxy settings as well.

Using containers

If your hardware supports EPID instead of DCAP, you must pass at least these flags when creating the Docker container:

--device=/dev/isgx -v /var/run/aesmd/aesm.socket:/var/run/aesmd/aesm.socket

Failure to do this will result in an SGX_ERROR_NO_DEVICE error when creating an enclave.

Renewing machine security

After following the above instructions, the EnclaveInstanceInfo objects might report your enclave as STALE. This means the machine requires software updates. To change the security evaluation to SECURE, you must apply all the updates and reboot. See "Renewability" to learn more about this topic.